. Period / Full stop
Full stop is used to end a sentence. For example: I am going to the market.
Comma is used to mark a brief pause in the sentence, usually at a point where you would naturally pause if you were speaking rather than writing. For example: Bring an ice cream, a bread, and some cookies from the market.
. . . ellipses
An ellipsis makes up for a missing piece of text, or allows for a pause in writing. For example: You went to the restaurant. And. . . ?
A colon means "that is to say" or "here's what I mean. " For example: He got what he worked for: he really earned that promotion.
; semi - colon
Semicolons separate things. Most commonly, they separate two main clauses that are closely related to each other but could stand on their own as sentences if you wanted them to
Here's an example: I have a big test tomorrow; I can't go out tonight.
 Square brackets
Square brackets (also called brackets, especially in American English) are mainly used to enclose words added by someone other than the original writer or speaker, typically in order to clarify the situation: He [the police officer] can’t prove they did it.
Round brackets (also called parentheses, especially in American English) are mainly used to separate off information that isn’t essential to the meaning of the rest of the sentence. For example: Mount Everest (in the Himalayas) is the highest mountain in the world.
! Exclamation mark
Exclamation mark is used to express excitement. It is also used to express surprise, astonishment, or any other such strong emotion. For example: I won the tournament!
? Question Mark
The question mark is used at the end of a direct question. For example: Where are you going?
The apostrophe is used to form possessives (e. g. , Jack's car, Sam's house)
Often, when a slash is used in a formal or informal text, it is meant to indicate the word 'or'. For example: Bring some white/brown bread.
" " Quotation Marks
Also known as inverted commas, they are mainly used to mark the beginning and end of direct speech (i. e. , a speaker’s words written down exactly as they were spoken). In American English, the rule is to use double quotation marks: "What time will he arrive?" she asked.
A hyphen joins two or more words together. For example: up - to - date
Used to refer readers to a note at the bottom of a page of text.
– en dash
An en - dash is used to connect values in a range or that are related. A good rule is to use it when you're expressing a "to" relationship. Examples where an en - dash should be used:
1. in years 1939–1945
2. pages 31–32 may be relevant
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