The Constitution of India has provided exceptional autonomy and discretionary powers to the Election Commission for conducting fair and free elections. Such autonomy and freedom is enjoyed by only few other Indian Institutions like, Union Public Service Commission, Higher Judiciary and the Comptroller and Auditor General of India.
The first Election Commission of India was established on 25th January 1950, and an Indian Civil Services officer, Sukumar Sen held the post of the first Election Commissioner of India, from 21st March 1950 to 19th December 1958.
The number of Election Commissioners was increased to three on 16th October 1989, with the appointment of two more commissioners to the Election Commission; however, this commission ceased to function in January 1990.
In 1991, the Parliament of India passed a law provisioning the appointment of two election commissioners. However, this law was further amended in 1993 and renamed as the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners (conditions of Service) Amendment Act 1993, which is continued till date.
The 1993 Act mandates the appointment of a Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners, to head the electoral body. Any decision taken by the commission must enjoy a majority vote.
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